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RNA molecules are a small and versatile tool to transport information within the cell and the organism, thus RNA represents an optimal way for viruses to store all the necessary information for their survival and replication in a minimal space and with minimal complexity. Furthermore, the translation of RNA to proteins is fundamental for cell survival and replication, thus it is not surprising that RNA-related pathways are altered in pathological conditions as hyperproliferative diseases.
There have been identified several partners of RNA which contributes to transport, folding, unwinding, protection, lysis, expression and all its lifecycle. Although the information carried is read from one strand of RNA, folding and annealing to double strand RNA is used to protect the molecule from lysis and to add a second structure for further recognition by partners. Therefore, a crucial step in the RNA molecule lifecycle is the unfolding of double strand loops or molecules.